Cryogenic spill analysis

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Cryogenic hazards are a significant safety concern in FLNGs, posing a risk to both personnel and assets. Among the most important cryogenic hazards we find carbon steel embrittlement and brittle fracture (potential escalation of the accident), potential cryogenic burns, cold vapour inhalation and asphyxiation (personnel risk).

The Cryogenic Risk and Cryogenic Spill Protection Optimisation analyses aim at minimising the risk to personnel and assets, increasing both the installation safety levels and optimising the design for a more competitive FLNG concept (CAPEX/OPEX).

How can we help

Lloyd’s Register (LR) has outstanding experience in FLNG and offers specialist expertise to help improve design. We provide related services ranging from deterministic cryogenic consequence assessment of a selected set of accidental scenarios to cryogenic exposure based on probabilistic approaches (the cryogenic risk for the Quantitative Risk Analysis).

Based on the specific client needs, LR applies the most appropriate approach to assess the risk and consequence of cryogenic structural failure. This could entail:

  • An initial cryogenic risk analysis (ICRA): a high level approach running coarse integral methods to estimate the cryogenic hazard zones for the asset and Safety Critical Elements.
  • An advanced cryogenic risk analysis (ACRA): A detailed 3D method that uses 3D numerical methods to estimate heat transfer rates from the cryogenic fluid to the structure (CFD), assess the thermo-mechanical performance of the structure (FEM), and optimise the Cryogenic Spill Protection.
  • A hybrid approach combining the ICRA and the ACRA methods.

We select the method and consequence tools most appropriate for the different project phases (Concept, FEED, Detailed Engineering and Operational): integral methods, advanced 3D cryogenic consequence with numerical models (CFD, FEM) or hybrid approaches.

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Technology development

Lloyd's Register is heavily involved in the development of cryogenics and a key player in the latest Joint Industry Projects, developing cryogenic guidance notes and pushing cryogenic modelling forward for more accurate cryogenic risk estimation and CSP Optimisation.

As most estimation methods available in the industry are still granular, Lloyd's Register has taken the initiative to develop a more advanced approach to Cryogenic Risk and Cryogenic Spill Protection Optimisation: the Advanced Cryogenic Structural Collapse Analysis (CSCA).

We have developed a Guidance Note that outlines methods to establish risk based cryogenic exposure on a probabilistic approach.

Download our Guidance Note on Risk based analysis for cryogenic spills for free

Speak to one of our experts:
Principal Consultant – Technical Safety and Consequence Modelling