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Key facts

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    NPIC (Nuclear Power Institute of China)

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    Floating Nuclear Power Plant

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NPIC is doing research on Floating Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) which is a marine application of Small Modular Reactor (SMR). Comparing to land-based nuclear power plant, the FNPP faces different environment, therefore, it raises new challenges on safety aspects, especially on how to identify the new external events to be considered and how to evaluate quantitatively the human reliability.


  1. Propose a systematic methodology for identification and screening of all possible external events faced by FNPP
  2. Propose a suitable Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods for FNPP and perform case studies

How we helped

Delivery of an external event identification and screening methodology

The methodology can be used to systematically identify and screen external events for the floating nuclear power plant. It is based on LR’s broad expertise related to the external events analyses for land-based nuclear power plants and nuclear spent fuel transportation ships.

The methodology is aimed to demonstrate to safety regulator that the designer will systematically identify all external events related to the FNPP, covering all locations and operational phases throughout the lifecycle, analyse them, and properly address external events in the design and operation of FNPP.

External Event and Risk Identification Workshop

A workshop is organized and facilitated by LR in order to identify in an exclusive way all external events and provide recommendations. The workshop gathers experts from reactor designer, EPC, shipyard and marine engineering company. The works shop has delivered:

  • Identification of more than 40 single external events and at least 10 multiple external events in combination.
  • Proposal of 61 recommendations to mitigate the risks due to these external events

Human Reliability Analysis methodology and its technical requirements

This methodology take into account the design characteristics of FNPP which differ from those of current conventional nuclear power plants and may require a distinct concept of operations. The methodology is based on research on Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) on marine/offshore and nuclear industries.

A series of technical requirements is also defined to ensure the analysis is performed with good quality, including requirements on all essential technical elements such as analysis process, Performance Shaping Factor, quantification method, etc.

Human Reliability Analysis case studies

Two typical accidents are studied and all human actions on all possible scenarios are studied, including:

  • Accident process and sequences analysis
  • Identification and screening of Human Failure events
  • Analysis of Performance Shaping factors including: available time, stress, complexity, experience and training, procedures, ergonomics and Human-Machine Interface, fitness for duty, working process
  • Mission analysis for each Human Failure Event
  • Quantification analysis for each Human Failure Event
  • Sensitivity analysis

The impact

LR’s unique combined competence on marine and nuclear is recognized by the client. In the project final review meeting, the NPIC review committee concluded:

“LR’s work on External Events Screening Methodology and Human Reliability Analysis for FNPP meets the target of the required research work, the deliverables fulfills all technical requirements, and the project process is well controlled.”

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