LR selected from shortlist of classification societies to carry out study into offloading of liquified CO2 as part of the onboard carbon capture process.

Lloyd's Register (LR) has been selected by the Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation (GCMD) to carry out a concept study on offloading liquefied CO2 (LCO2) captured onboard ships alongside partners Arup.

Addressing a gap in the value chain

Shipboard carbon capture can be a mid-term solution for decarbonising international shipping. For the industry to operationalise shipboard carbon capture technologies, addressing the offloading of captured CO2 is key to the entire value chain. LCO2 is likely one of the common forms in which CO2 will be stored and offloaded after its capture onboard ships, and its offloading is likely to take place alongside concurrent cargo and/or bunkering operations. The GCMD concept study will address safety and operational considerations surrounding offloading of LCO2 that has been captured onboard tankers, bulkers and container liners, including articulating the temperatures and pressures under which this process would optimally take place and the different receptacles to be used for this purpose. The outcome of the study can also provide insights for off-loading CO2 as a cargo under currently less-established operating and storage conditions.

The GCMD LCO2 offloading study: a fundamental prerequisite

Currently, there are no guidelines for offloading captured CO2. The findings of the study will form a basis to enable sea trials in Phase 3 of Project REMARCCABLE (Realising Maritime Carbon Capture to demonstrate the Ability to Lower Emissions). One of the world’s largest end-to-end demonstrations of shipboard CO2 capture at scale, Project REMARCCABLE is a 500-hr pilot that will be using non-proprietary amine-based solution, aiming to demonstrate 30% annual CO2 emissions reduction or 1300 kg/hr of CO2, store 375 metric tonnes of LCO2 onboard, and offload LCO2 after 10 days of sailing.

GCMD announced its Invitation-for-Proposals (IFP) on 6 December 2022 to a shortlist of classification societies and engineering consultants. The shortlisted recipients were invited to articulate the concept design for offloading shipboard liquefied CO2 captured on board ships to shore, and to ship storage facilities in major ports, of which guidelines are also not available for large-scale CO2 cargo offloading. In response to the IFP, a total of six proposals were received. In addition to internal evaluators, GCMD solicited the input and assessment of three external evaluators, all of whom are industry veterans with extensive domain expertise.

On awarding the GCMD concept study to Lloyd’s Register, Professor Lynn Loo, CEO of the Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation, said: “We are pleased to be working with Lloyd’s Register on this LCO2 offloading concept study. The learnings from this study will inform how captured CO2 can be offloaded from various vessel types in general, and enable the sea trials on Stena Impero that are being planned as part of Project REMARCCABLE more specifically.”

Assessing and validating the land-side infrastructure for LCO2 offloading

A broader intent of this LCO2 offloading concept study is to assess the readiness of current infrastructure for LCO2 offloading. Scenario-based CAPEX and OPEX models for LCO2 offloading infrastructure buildout and operation costs will be generated. Additionally, a review of existing gaps in analytical methods, verification procedures, competency standards, and regulation regimes that are needed to enable LCO2 offloading at major ports will be conducted.

GCMD aims to validate and finalise the study’s findings with industry stakeholders, such as port and terminal operators, vessel owners, and shipyards. Through this concept study, GCMD will help support the establishment of regulatory and operational guidelines and help set a precedence for future piloting and demonstration projects related to shipboard carbon capture technologies at scale. With both the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) and the Port of Rotterdam Authority (POR) as observers on this study, the findings can help assess the prospects of LCO2 to support maritime decarbonisation.

On being successfully awarded the Invitation-for-Proposal, Nick Brown, CEO of Lloyd’s Register, said: “Conducting this concept study for the Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation will deliver greater industry understanding around the safety and operational issues that need addressing for offloading captured LCO2 from vessels. This study, in collaboration with stakeholders from across the maritime value chain, will support the establishment of regulatory and operational guidelines around offloading captured liquid carbon dioxide from vessels, which is crucial to enabling safe adoption of carbon capture technologies on board. It will also offer a timely assessment of the capital expenditure and operating expenditure of the infrastructure needed to offload liquid carbon dioxide from ships thus enabling the industry to make informed decisions for creating this infrastructure.”

Borbala Trifunovics, Ports & Maritime Leader at Arup, said: “Action on maritime decarbonisation requires innovative new approaches to infrastructure and operations at ports. We are bringing together our maritime and energy expertise to shape solutions for LCO2 offloading that are safe, efficient and integrated with wider port functions.”

To support the study, GCMD has convened a consortium of Study Partners and Observers who have the relevant domain expertise, interest and experience to provide inputs over the course of the project and support the review of the final report. A list of participating organisations can be found below.

The study will commence in April 2023 and is expected to complete within 9 months.

Study Partners


  • Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore
  • Port of Rotterdam Authority