This end of stage report serves as project document supporting the publication “Recommendations for Design and Operation of Ammonia-Fuelled Vessels Based on Multi-disciplinary Risk Analysis”.

Lloyd’s Register Maritime Decarbonisation Hub (LRMDH) and the Maersk McKinney Moeller (MMM) Zero Carbon Shipping Centre commissioned Lloyd’s Register’s Human Factors advisory department to assist with the identification of human factors considerations related to the use of ammonia as fuel for reference designs of tanker, container and bulk carrier vessels. The objective was to provide a preliminary account of the factors that should be addressed to prepare for ammonia fuel use within the context of safe, efficient, and environmentally sound operations.

As with conventional fuel, using ammonia as fuel is associated with hazards. Due to its novelty as a fuel in the maritime industry, it is critical that the various ammonia risks including those associated with human factors are understood so that appropriate operational and design safeguards, including engineering and administrative controls, can be put in place to address risk potentials.

Through our findings, we believe that if marine industry addresses human factors considerations and builds upon existing marine industry experience with low flash point fuels / cargo and ensures sufficient safeguards are provided for the various ammonia risks, then ammonia can provide an acceptable alternative to conventional fuel use. Such guidance would help the industry to move forward with its goal for using low carbon fuel alternatives.

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